Engineers are responsible for planning, designing, operating, maintaining and managing public infrastructure. It is critical for engineers to understand and account for the risks and vulnerabilities to this infrastructure that is resulting from the increasing frequency of extreme weather conditions and our changing climate.
Our climate is changing. Now more than ever, we are paying increased attention to the significant risks of climate change on the performance of engineered transit systems and public safety. Engineers, decision makers and other stakeholders are beginning to see the benefits of including climate change adaptation as part of their primary mandates. Vulnerability and risk assessments are becoming important steps to ensuring climate change is considered early in the engineering design, operations and maintenance of civil infrastructure.
Current transformers for protection relays, as opposed to those use strictly for metering purposes, have an IEEE standard classification. There are two classifications, Class T CTs and Class C CTs. The ‘T’ stands for “tested” and the ‘C’ stands for “computed”.
Class T CTs generally have a high level of flux leakage (due to the way the primary is configured as multiple windings around the core) which requires the performance of the CT to be tested. Class T CTs are rarely used for commercial power system protection relays, and they will not be discussed further here.
This White Paper describes The Isolated-Parallel (“Iso-Parallel” or “IP”) configuration for rotary diesel UPS systems.
There is a common misconception that security and safety conflict when applied to a building’s design. However, experience shows that security and safety can be compatible when the two disciplines are integrated early in the design stage.
Energy use in buildings throughout North America has attracted significant attention over the past decade. In cold marine climates, rainwater management is also a critical aspect of the building enclosure and energy performance. Various drainage practices used for low slope inverted roofing are often designed without quantified data available regarding the cold rain affects on the thermal performance of the systems.
In Canada, the design, construction and installation of glazing systems has been partially regulated through standards and building Codes for decades.
This research proposes an alternative rehabilitation strategy for aging high-rise multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) involving suite compartmentalization and decentralizing the ventilation system.
Exterior insulated assemblies are growing in popularity due to changing code requirements with regards to thermal resistance for opaque wall assemblies.
ETFE, the fluorocarbon-based polymer ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, is quickly gaining popularity in North America with it’s use on some of the continent’s most prominent projects. ETFE was developed for architectural purposes in the 1970s, and since that time, mainstream use of ETFE in construction projects has been largely limited to Europe.